The stratification of a band of fighting vassals into different groups could be roughly correlated with the new term “fiefdom” that had begun to replace “pfründe” in the ninth century. A “superior” group was composed of great territorial magnates strong enough to ensure the inheritance of their prerogatives to the heirs of their family. An “inferior” group consisted of landless knights arranged by a count or duke. This process of social settlement was also stimulated by fundamental changes in the war. When coordinated cavalry replaced disorganized infantry, maintaining armies became more expensive. A vassal needed economic resources to equip the cavalry he had to bring to his master to fight his frequent wars. In the absence of a monetary economy, these resources came only from land and related assets, including farmers, timber and water. Hedable property or rights granted by a superior to a vassal. The rights of vassals over fiefdoms became greater and greater over time, and soon fiefdoms became hereditary in the sense that investiture could not be denied to an heir willing to venerate. Inheritance rules tended to ensure an unshared fiefdom and preferred the eldest among the sons (Primogenian).
This principle was far from absolute; Under pressure from younger sons, parts of an inheritance may be withdrawn for them as compensation (see appensage). Vassals also acquired the right to cede their fiefdoms, provided that the Lord had first given His consent and then paid a certain tax. In the same way, they had the right to submit – that is, to become masters themselves by assigning part of their fiefs to their own vassals. When a vassal died without inheritance or committed a crime, his fief returned to the Lord (see escheat). Eyre – The right of a king (or judges acting on his behalf) to visit and inspect the funds of a vassal. It was performed periodically, usually at irregular intervals of a few years. Feudalism was a political system based on an agreement or contract between two or more nobles. Feudalism was hierarchical: those at the top were strong, while those at the bottom were relatively weaker. The most powerful noble was at the top. He was called the lord of Liège, while the weaker was commonly called a vassal. In the feudal system, it was possible to be both a vassal (lower lord) and to have one`s own vassals. For example, the King of England was the highest on the island, but because he also owned land in France, he was at the same time a vassal of the King of France.
The feudal bond was therefore a combination of two key elements: fidelity or an oath of allegiance, and a promise of service to the Lord and a recognition or recognition of the reign of the Lord of the Vassal. The provision was not imposed on the vassal; It was profitable for the vassal and was fabricated by mutual agreement, and it fostered the loyalty necessary for royal control of distant lands. Many empires have created vassal states based on tribes, kingdoms or city-states whose subjects they want to control without having to conquer or govern them directly. In these cases, a subordinate state (such as a dependency, sovereignty, domicile or protectorate) has preserved domestic autonomy, but has lost its independence in foreign policy, while in many cases it also pays formal tribute or provides troops when required. The vassal owed fidelity to his master. .